谭 振, 黄 仲, 李 亮, 等.骶髂关节脱位的分型方法及手术治疗方案.四川大学学报(医学版),2017,48(5):661-667
骶髂关节脱位的分型方法及手术治疗方案
Classification and Treatment of Sacroiliac Joint Dislocation
  
中文关键词:  骶髂关节脱位 分型 治疗
英文关键词:Sacroiliac joint dislocation Classification Treatment
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中文摘要:
      目的 根据已有病例资料,重新探讨骶髂关节脱位的分型方法及相应的手术治疗方案。方法 根据患者骶髂关节脱位方向及是否合并髂骨、骶骨骨折及骨折形态等临床特征,分为4型。Ⅰ型(骶髂关节前脱位):髂后翼主要骨折块向骶髂关节前方脱位;Ⅱ型(骶髂关节后脱位):髂后翼主要骨折块向骶髂关节后方脱位;Ⅲ型(新月形骨折脱位):髂后翼向上脱位伴经髂翼后上斜行骨折,其中又分为3个亚型,ⅢA型:经髂骨不超过骶髂关节前三分之一关节面的骨折脱位,同时伴有上方大的新月型骨折块;ⅢB型:经髂骨骶髂关节中三分之一关节面的骨折脱位,同时伴有中等大小的新月型骨折块;ⅢC型:经髂骨骶髂关节后三分之一关节面的骨折脱位(通常只经过大部分骶髂关节),同时伴有较小的新月型骨折块。Ⅳ型(经骶骨骶髂关节脱位):经骶骨骨折伴骶髂关节脱位。针对不同类型骨折选择相应的治疗方法。Ⅰ型骶髂关节脱位:行前方髂窝入路撬剥复位、经皮骶髂关节螺钉固定术;Ⅱ型骶髂关节脱位:骶髂关节后方入路计算机导航下骶髂关节螺钉内固定术;ⅢA型、ⅢB型骶髂关节脱位:骶髂关节后方入路重建钢板固定术;ⅢC型骨折骶髂关节脱位:行闭合复位经皮骶髂关节螺钉内固定术。Ⅳ型骶髂关节脱位:经后路脊柱骨盆固定(闭口万向螺钉骶髂固定系统联合后路部分脊柱内固定系统)术。结果 Ⅰ型骶髂关节脱位2例,其中1例患者并存神经损伤,术后一年完全恢复;Ⅱ型骶髂关节脱位8例,术前无明显神经损伤;Ⅲ型骶髂关节脱位12例,其中1例术前并存神经损伤,术后一年完全恢复;Ⅳ型骶髂关节脱位3例,3例患者均并存神经损伤,2例于术后1年完全恢复,1例随访期间神经功能部分恢复。本组25例患者术后总体生存率为100%,伤口一期愈合率100%,骨折愈合率100%,术后随访24~72月,平均34.5月。结论 本研究所建立的分型方法及相应的治疗方案,取得了较好的治疗效果,该分型及治疗方法值得推广。
英文摘要:
      【Abstract】 Objective To develop a renewed classification and treatment regimen for sacroiliac joint dislocation. Methods According to the direction of dislocation of sacroiliac joint, combined iliac, sacral fractures, and fracture morphology, sacroiliac joint dislocation was classified into 4 types. Type Ⅰ (sacroiliac anterior dislocation): main fracture fragments of posterior iliac wing dislocated in front of sacroiliac joint. Type Ⅱ (sacroiliac posterior dislocation): main fracture fragments of posterior iliac wing dislocated in posterior of sacroiliac joint. Type Ⅲ (Crescent fracturedislocation of the sacroiliac joint): upward dislocation of posterior iliac wing with oblique fracture through posterior iliac wing. Type ⅢA: a large crescent fragment and dislocation comprises no more than onethird of sacroiliac joint, which is typically inferior. Type ⅢB: intermediatesize crescent fragment and dislocation comprises between one and twothirds of joint. Type ⅢC: a small crescent fragment where dislocation comprises most, but not the entire joint. Different treatment regimens were selected for different types of fractures. Treatment for type Ⅰ sacroiliac joint dislocation: anterior iliac fossa approach pry stripping reset; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw through percutaneous. Treatment for type Ⅱ sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior sacroiliac joint posterior approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw under computer guidance. Treatment for type ⅢA and ⅢB sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior sacroiliac joint approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with reconstruction plate. Treatment for type ⅢC sacroiliac joint dislocation: sacroiliac joint closed reduction; sacroiliac joint fixed with sacroiliac screw through percutaneous. Treatment for type Ⅳ sacroiliac joint dislocation: posterior approach; sacroiliac joint fixed with spinal pelvic fixation. Results Results of 24 to 72 months patient
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